Long-EZ belonging to NOAA
Role Homebuilt aircraft
National origin United States of America
Manufacturer Rutan Aircraft Factory
Designer Burt Rutan
First flight June 12, 1979
The Rutan Model 61 Long-EZ is a homebuilt aircraft with a canard layout designed by Burt Rutan's Rutan Aircraft Factory. It is derived from the VariEze, which was first offered to homebuilders in 1976. The prototype, N79RA of the Long-EZ first flew on June 12, 1979.
The Long-EZ was a clean-sheet scaled up redesign of the VariEze predecessor. Changes from the VariEze included a larger main wing with modified Eppler 1230 airfoil and less sweep—the canard uses the same GU25-5(11)8 airfoil as the VariEze—larger strakes containing more fuel and baggage storage, slightly wider cabin, and the ability to use a Lycoming 108 hp engine with no nose ballast. Plans were offered from 1980 to 1985. As of late 2005, approximately 700 Long EZ's are FAA registered in the USA.
In January 1985, it was announced that plans for a new canard were being offered, to eliminate "rain trim change" that had been experienced by Long-EZ pilots. This trim change is usually a nose down trim change experienced when flying into rain requiring a small aft force on the stick to main altitude, which is easily trimmed out, using the bungee trim system. The new canard was designed with the Roncz R1145MS airfoil, which produces considerably more lift than the original GU25-5(11)8 airfoil. This enabled the new canard to be designed with less span, reducing wetted area and thus drag. The new canard has a negligible rain trim and the rain only adds 2 knots to the stall speed.
The aircraft is designed for fuel-efficient long-range flight, with a range of just over 2,000 miles (3,200 km). It can fly for over ten hours and up to 1,600 miles (2,600 km) on 52 gallons (200 liters) of fuel. Equipped with a rear-seat fuel tank, a Long-EZ has flown for 4,800 miles (7,700 kilometers).
The pilot sits in a semi-reclined seat and controls the Long-EZ by means of a side-stick controller situated on the right-hand console. In addition to having an airbrake on the underside, the twin tail's wing-tip rudders can be deflected outwards to act as auxiliary airbrakes.
In 1996 Burt Rutan Awarded TERF Inc. the job of publishing the plans for the Long EZ and other of his aircraft under The Rutan Aircraft Factory CD ROM Encyclopedia for the purpose of further assisting new builders and maintenance for existing builders.
- An extensivley modified redesign using Long-EZ wings with a fuselage modified for side-by-side seating, retractable landing gear, and larger automotive engine conversion powerplants.
- XCOR Aerospace modified a Long-EZ and replaced the engine with twin liquid-fueled rocket engines to form a flight test vehicle called the EZ-rocket, which was used as a proof-of-concept demonstrator. Initially, a follow-on version called the "Mark-1 X-Racer, was going to be developed for the Rocket Racing League, but the Velocity SE was subsequently selected as the airframe for the Rocket Racer, rather than the Long-EZ.
- Twin EZ
- Ivan Shaw built a Long-EZ and then converted it into a "Twin-EZ", an aircraft with twin wing-mounted Norton wankel engines (precursors to the MidWest AE series). Shaw, a Yorkshireman, later designed the Europa XS kitplane.
- Long ESA
- A 258hp electric engine conversion. On 19 July 2012, pilot Chip Yates achieved 202.6mph in level flight, making the aircraft the fastest man carrying electric powered aircraft.
- Berkez or Berk-EZ
- Heavily modified Long-EZ with Berkut 360 components.
Accidents and incidents
Singer-songwriter John Denver died while flying a Long-EZ on October 12, 1997. The NTSB believes that he inadvertently pushed on his right rudder pedal while twisting to the left in his seat as he struggled to operate the fuel selector valve. Contributing factors in the crash were other pilot errors, a design that led to an overly optimistic pre-flight fuel-check estimate, a known defective (very hard to turn) fuel valve, and non-standard placement of the fuel selector valve by the kit plane's builder, at variance with Burt Rutan's specs. Denver was aware of the faulty valve prior to take off and had previously flown the aircraft only for approximately thirty minutes in an orientation flight the day before the accident, although he was an experienced pilot. The NTSB cited Denver's unfamiliarity with the aircraft and his failure to have the aircraft refueled as causal factors in the accident. The aerodynamics of this unusual aircraft did not play a role in Denver's crash.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83
- Crew: 1 Pilot
- Capacity: 1 Passenger
- Length: 16 ft 10 in (5.12 m)
- Wingspan: 26 ft 1 in (7.96 m)
- Height: 7 ft 10 in (2.40 m)
- Wing area: 81.99 sq ft (7.617 m2)
- Empty weight: 710 lb (322 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 1,325 lb (601 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 52 US Gal (197 L)
- Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-235 air-cooled flat-four engine, 115 hp (86 kW)
- Maximum speed: 185 mph (298 km/h; 161 kn) (max cruise)
- Cruise speed: 144 mph (125 kn; 232 km/h) (40% power)
- Range: 2,010 mi (1,747 nmi; 3,235 km)
- Service ceiling: 27,000 ft (8,230 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,750 ft/min (8.9 m/s)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Taylor 1982, p. 565.
- FAA REGISTRY N-Number Inquiry Results
- "Ez Come EZ go". Air Progress: 12. October 1979.
- "Long-EZ Canard Update", The Canard Pusher Vol. 43, January 1985.
- W.J. Hennigan (April 1, 2011). "Aerospace legend Burt Rutan ready for a landing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
- Rutan Long-EZ Owners Manual, Second Edition - October 1983
- "Rutan Aircraft Factory Encyclopedia: Volumes 1, 2 & 3", Terf Inc., 1996.
- "E-Racer". Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Rocket Racing League website
- Products Overview, XCOR Aerospace, undated, accessed 2010-12-27. "Twin 400 lb-thrust XR-4A3 engines aboard the EZ-Rocket" (with in-flight photograph) ... "Another engine that we have developed in parallel is the XR-4K14, ... a 1,500 lb thrust regeneratively cooled LOX and pump-fed kerosene system ... used as the Rocket Racer aircraft's main engine."
- XCOR X-Racer, by Nancy Atkinson, Universe Today, 2009-08-06, accessed 2010-04-26.
- STARGAZER - A unique database on Burt Rutan and his projects!
- Experimenter: 36. September 2012.
- "Flight of the Century". Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- Sport Aviation: 95. June 2013.
- Crash investigation, NTSB, January 26, 1999, retrieved 2012-01-05
- Bruce Tognazzini (June 1999), "When Interfaces Kill: What Really Happened to John Denver", AskTog, retrieved 210-02-21 Check date values in:
- National Transportation Safety Board Accident Report, NTSB Identification NYC98FA047
- David Diamond: "James Gleick's Survival Lessons", Wired, 7.08, August, 1999